Editor: Bogusława Dobek – Ostrowska & Róża Smolak,

Guest Editor: Zrinjka Perusko

Guest Editor`s  introduction 

Zrinjka Perusko (University of Zagreb, Croatia)

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Global de – Westernization trend in media studies and Russian journalism theory

Sergey G. Korkonosenko (St. Petersburg State University, Russia)

ABSTRACT: The long peroid of current isolation of Russian researchers from an international context ? due to political reasons – has come to an end. However, their work continues to be relatively unknown abroad. Theoretical concepts from West are poorly suited for understanding of local journalism with its original traditions and professional characteristics. The objective and subjective reasons of such a state of affairs are considered.  The Russian research school should take the place of an equal partner in the international community and act according to principles of mutually adventageous exchange. A de – Westernization trend in media studies creates good conditions for this.

KEY WORDS: journalism study, West, East, de ? Westernization trend, national identity, international context, change, Russia

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News coverage of the first Polish presidency of the Council of the European Union (2011): Findings from an international comparative study

Romy Wohlert (Alpen-Andria-University Klagenfurt & Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria), Stijn Joye (Ghent University, Belgium), Agnieszka Stępińska (Adam Mickiewicz University Poznań, Poland), Daniel Biltereyst (Ghent University, Belgium) and Khael Velders (Ghent University, Belgium)

ABSTRACT: This article presents the main findings of an international comparative project on the news coverage of the Polish EU presidency (2011). The study examines the coverage of Poland that for the first time held the leading position in the RU Council within a new institutional context. The findings presented a stem form the analysis of six countries: Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Poland, and Romania, following a mixed-method approach, combining quantitative and qualitative methods of content analysis. The results suggest that Poland`s presidency did not change the thematic focus of the news reporting on Poland, neither in other EU countries nor in Poland. The patterns of international and domestic news were not affected significantly by EU-related events but remained shaped by news values of relevance and deviance. In general, Poland was portrayed in a neutral way with rather limited visibility which is related to the then dominant coverage od the Eurozone crisis.

KEYWORDS: International news coverage, European Union, presidency, Poland, news values, mixed method approach.

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Is news liberated or enslaved? Consequences of news aggregation 

Paweł Wieczorek (University of Social Sciences and Humanities in Warsaw, Poland)

ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the consequences of news aggregation in mobile applications. These applications retreive news items from the Internet, rank them and subsequently stream in the theme channels automatically. While doing so, they transform the original layout and context of the news. As a result, the news is situated beyond the control of the authors and editors. Is therefore the reference to the news as being “enslaved” justified? The conducted analyses allowed the author to draw different conclusions. News enslavement is abot its being protected against aggregators through licences and paywalls. Antoher question then arises: does observing only selected channels with many newsitems but on a limited number of topics limit or hel the reader? Habing considered all the pros and cons, the balance is positive: mobile applications enable readers’ acces to the news published on small, unknown and local sites.

KEYWORDS: aggregator, application, news, convergence, journalism

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The development of online political communication in Poland in European Parlimentary elections 2014: Technological innovation versus old habits

Michał Jacuńsk and Paweł Baranowski (University of Wroclaw, Poland)

ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the methods of electoral communication during the 2014 European Parliament election in Poland. Are Polish candidates to the European Parliament stuck with the old habits and patterns of communication or habe they adopted all the available technological innovations? Constant technological evolution and increasing Internet usage-rate are not giving the candidates new possibilities to reach potential voters, but they also pose a challenge. By using content analysis, we have analyzed the structure of candidates’ websites and their official Facebook and Twitter profiles. We also analyzed the level of interactivity with candidates’ fans on Facebook and openess to two-way communication on websites a “must” in the late web 2.0 era.

KEYWORDS: European Parliament, elections,online political communication, owned media, social media, web campaigning, participation.

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Political communication in the EU: Civic potential of new media (case study: Poland)

Małgorzata Winiarska-Brodowska (Jagiellonian University, Poland)

ABSTRACT: The aim of the paper is to present empirical findings on political communication in the European Union, elaborating especially on the engagement of Polish citizens and participatory democracy in this part of Central and Estearn Europe. Drawing on Peter Dahlgren`s approach to media and political engagement, the study concerns the cdevelopment of EU civic cultures. Content analysis of the “Debate Europe” online discussion forum and the European Commission`s Facebook pages allowed the evaluation of EU citizens’ diverse practices concerning the European elecions in 2009 and 2014. The internet has changed models of political participation. It plays an important role in the communication between EU institutions and EU citizens. It enables citizens to contribute to the European communicative space, even if the described process is asmmetric, dominated to a large extent b Brussels. New forms of civic involvement and less formal types of particiaption can be identified.

KEYWORDS: political communication, civic engagement, online discussion forum, social media, European Union, Poland.

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Blessing or curse of the digital world – perceptions of online anonymity in Polish daily newspapers

Kornelia Trytko (Notthingam Trent University, United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT: With the Internet`s political imporance on the rise, anonymous online deliberation has become a vital form of citizen participation in the public discourse. Proponents o the right to anonymity argue that it helps secure users’ privacy, autonomy and freedom of speech. Critics, on the other hand, maintain that anonymous content is usually offensive, deceptive and of little value. While the advantages and threats of online anonymity have been widely researched, little has been said about the role of the media in determining the future of anonymous communication. Through the analysis of 300 articles related to online anonymity, published in the Polish quality press, this paper explores how this contested issue is constructed in the Polish media discourse. It is argued that Polish newspapers paint a mostly negative and highly simplified picture of online anonymity which might have damaging consequences for online privacy and freedom of speech.

KEYWORDS: online anonymity, democracy, Poland, media, Internet, content analysis.

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“I went to resist. I’ll be back”: Otekilerin Postasi as an example of citizen journalism in Turkey

Dilek Ozhan Kocak (Giresum University, Turkey)

ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the rise of citizen journalism in Turkey. By using the example of Otekilerin Postati  (The Post of Others) – a Facebook page that makes citizen journalism and collective reporting – it argues that citizen journalism in the country was born because the citizens needed news that was not being reported in mainstream media. The state of Turkish mainstream media became obvious during the Gezi Park protests, where news flow to citizens did not occur especially on the first day, 31 May 2013. The approach of mainstream media opened up alternative ways for news to be disseminate, such as the use of sovial media for receiving news during and ater the events. This chapter will discuss the central importance of citizen journalism by showing the ties between media owners and the Turkish government and the benefits that both enjoy as a result of this relationship, which prevented citizens from having freedom of information.

KEYWORDS: citizen journalism, mainstream media, alternative media, social media, citizens, information, news.

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Transition from communism to democracy in Romanian advertising

Madalina Moraru (University of Bucharest, ROmania)

ABSTRACT: This study discusses the way the advertising industry underwent important changes in many ex-communist European countries, considering Romania as a prime example. The reinvention of advertising in Romania after 1990 is firmly related to features of political system, professionals’ training, and consumer needs. Given that consumer behaviour is constantly evolving, as is the entire industry, the present paper investigates the views of Romanian professionals on local advertising in democracy, as well as on the transformation of advertising agencies, using the primary metgod of the semi-structured interview. To be more credible, the chapter presents the relevant case study of ROM chocolate, a brand that was awarded 9 Lions at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival. Consequently, we hypothesize that advertising developed twocontrasting attitudes during the transition: fistly brands denied their past; secondly, they began to use it to prove their endurance and stability.

KEYWORDS: democracy, communism, transition, advertising agency, consumer, localization.

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News trends in agenda-setting – interview with Professor Maxwell McCombs – one of the two founding fathers of empirical research research on the agenda-setting function of the press 

The interview was conducted by Bartłomiej Łódzki and Ewa Nowak in May 2015

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