CEJC Volume 9, No 2 (17) Fall 2016

Editors: Michał Głowacki, Jacek Nożewski
Guest editor: Gunnar Nygren

okladka-fall-2016Guest editor’s introduction 

Gunnar Nygren (Södertörn University, Sweden)

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Reduction of liberalism in Lithuanian media policy 

Deimantas Jastramskis (Vilnius University, Lithuania)

ABSTRACT: Lithuanian governments had been conducting liberal economic policies regarding media subjects for almost two decades, till the end of 2008. However, the economic crisis in 2008 influenced the Lithuanian government to apply the measures of fiscal consolidation: in similar fashion, liberal media policy was adjusted with the state gaining more power. The aim of this article is to analyze Lithuanian media policy decisions and their effects on media sectors, organizations and workers during the period of the economic crisis and since then. The article claims that essentially reduced liberalization of taxation, slightly reduced commercialization of the national media environment and reinforced overly bureaucratic system of media regulation resulted in a lesser degree of liberalism in the Lithuanian media policy from the end of 2008 to 2015.

KEYWORDS: media policy, liberalism, state, crisis, regulation, marketization.

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Framing of European integration in Ukrainian media discourse 

Oleksii Polegkyi (Antwerp University, Belgium)

ABSTRACT: Th e topic of European integration is one of the most important for Ukrainian political discourse and refl ects the main controversy in politics and society. Th is paper is based on a case study: how are European integration and widely the idea of Europe conceptualized in Ukrainian political discourses and how are they presented and framed in the Ukrainian press in the period 2005?2010? What are the dominant frames in the representation of European integration in the Ukrainian press? Th is study demonstrates that conceptualization of European integration and, connected with it, the foreign policy choice of Ukraine is proceeding in the Ukrainian media discourse with usage of the following dominant frames: geopolitical confrontation, civilizational choice and an instrument of inner changes.

KEYWORDS: Ukrainian media, European integration, frame analysis, media discourse.

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Can a “Lone wolf” quasi-investigative journalists substitute low functionality of the law enforcement system? 

Andrej Školkay (School of Communication and Media, Bratislava, Slovakia)

ABSTRACT: Th e present article analyzes a relatively unusual case, in which a quasi-investigative journalist, working in an entirely independent capacity, succeeded in uncovering and foiling an international money laundering attempt. Th is extremely signifi cant story reveals the existence of a complex legal framework for tackling money laundering operations in the EU. In this particular instance, local police and prosecutors were unable to take action against the perpetrator of illegal activity, as the case did not fulfi ll conditions of local legislation. Th e present study thus draws attention to the weakness of anti-corruption and anti-money laundering legislation. It provides evidence that a non-affi liated journalist can also be a great asset to society, although the actual mostly low coverage of the case indicates a poor media understanding of the social implications of crime detection across both the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

KEYWORDS: money laundering, undercover investigative journalism, anti-money laundering (AML), Slovakia, Czech Republic, Hong Kong.

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Pakistan media: Unnamed sources reveal political crises and law and other problems 

Abhijit Mazumdar (University of Tennessee in Knoxville, USA)

ABSTRACT: Journalists use sources to accord credibility to their news stories. However, they use unnamed sources when they feel the sources would be harmed for revealing information to the media. Th is qualitative study analyzes news from unnamed sources in political stories in Pakistani media. It uses grounded theory to find common themes in the news obtained from unnamed sources. Th e common themes found in the study were about political crises, and breakdown of law and order in Pakistan. The author discusses the ways in which unnamed sources were used in the stories. Many unnamed sources gave views that were different from those given by named sources in the same story, while a few stories did not give any indication of the rank of the unnamed sources in the hierarchy of the political party or the army.

KEYWORDS: unnamed sources, Pakistan media, politics, politicians, army, themes.

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The global society and its impact on public relations theorizing: Reflections on major macro trends

Chiara Valentini Aarhus University, Denmark), Dean Kruckeberg (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA), Kenneth Starck (University of Iowa, USA)

ABSTRACT: This article contributes to the discussion on societal changes and their impact on communication disciplines by focusing on public relations and its role in contemporary global society. The thesis is that the public relations profession has been affected by contemporary societal changes that challenge the existing body of knowledge and its underpinning theories. To understand the role of public relations in 21st century global societies and pursuing future public relations theorizing, the authors argue it is paramount to comprehend which factors at macro, meso, and micro levels lie beneath the substantial changes in today?s global society. The article presents and refl ects on four major macro trends of contemporary global society and concludes with suggestions for future directions for public relations scholarship and practice that are rooted in the concept of community and the idea of being part of and at the service of a community.

KEYWORDS: public relations, global society, social change, communication technologies, marketization, community.

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Learning PR, Methodological and legitimation-based learning in PR – A theoretical approach and empirical findings

Olaf Hofjann and Michael Lohse (Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Germany)

ABSTRACT: PR increases the refl exivity of organizations, thereby providing a central opportunity or learning. While this consideration is implicitly contained in many definitions and theories relating to PR, organizational learning has until now remained a ?hidden topic? in international PR research. This is all the more surprising when we consider that learning is relevant to PR on two counts at least: first, the aforementioned role of PR as a central learning opportunity within an organization. PR identifies stakeholder demands and develops strategies to help ensure the legitimacy of the organization. This will be referred to as legitimation-based learning. Second, PR learns with respect to its own methods and skills. This will be referred to as method-based learning. This article will present a theoretical framework for legitimation-based and method-based learning. Then, the initial results of an online survey (N = 121) that examines selected issues relating to this approach will be presented.

KEYWORDS: organizational learning, reflexivity of organizations, public relations, online survey.

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