Volume 7, No 1 (12), Spring 2014

Editor: Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Guest Editor: Gianpietro Mazzoleni

Guest Editor`s introduction (Gianpietro Mazzoleni)

Full text (PDF)

Three paradigms of journalistic objectivity in Slovenian press history

Igor Vobič (University of Ljubljana)

ABSTRACT: The multifaceted character of journalistic objectivity is historically based on different philosophical underpinnings of communication, resulting in a variety of societal roles for journalists and competing notions of news. The article approaches journalistic objectivity in the context of Slovenian press history, which is often overlooked in conceptual debates on journalistic development in Europe. Three paradigms of journalistic objectivity within the 20th century Slovenian press are identified and presented, namely (1) the utilitarian approach to journalistic objectivity in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia during the 1920s and 1930s, (2) the objectivity of self-managed journalism in Socialist Yugoslavia from the 1950s to the late 1980s, and (3) the pragmatic objectivity of high-modern journalism from the early 1990s onwards. Each concept is assessed in terms of the societal roles of journalists from monarchical to socialist to capitalist societal settings; they are then interpreted through the prism of different prevailing conceptions of reality and evolving philosophical bases of understanding communication in Slovenian press history.

Keywords: journalism, news, objectivity, paradigm, history, Slovenia

Author`s note:

The author would like to note that the manuscript is not an “Original Article”. An erlier version of the text was published in Slovenian in the following publication: Vobič, I. (2013) Objectivnost in pristranost: slovensko novinarstvo od moderne koncepcije tiska do interneta. Dialogi, 49 (9), pp. 54 – 73.”

Time for community media in Central and Eastern Europe

Urszula Doliwa (University of Warmia and Mazury, Poland)  Larisa Rankovic (University of Belgrade, Serbia)

While the community media sector may be reported as established and well developed in Western Europe, it has grown considerably more slowly in almost all countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The literature on community media in Europe is also Western oriented ? most of the publications about this sector centre on countries which were located on ?the better side? of the Iron Curtain and have been written by Western authors. This paper is the first attempt to look at the problem of community media in Central and Eastern Europe in general and present the specific problems of the community media development in this region from the Eastern perspective. According to the Mapping Project of Community Media completed by the Community Media Forum Europe in 2012, the community media sector is legally recognized in only four countries from this region.

Key words: community media, community radio, radio, media in CEE, third sector of broadcasting, broadcast media

The importance of the ‘contextual intelligence’ in the political leadership audience perception

Rocío Zamora and José Carlos Losadaa (University of Murcia, Spain)

ABSTRACT: This article empirically measures the role of the  “contextual intelligence” (Nye, 2008), based on the leader intuitive diagnosis to make a good judgment of the political situation each time, as a key factor for an effective political leadership. This study includes a case study that analyzes the importance of the use of the contextual intelligence related the leadership of president of Murcia region (Spain), Ramón Luis Valcárcel, one of the most popular and longest in government Spanish regional leaders. Data were gathered from three representative surveys conducted in three consecutive regional election campaigns (2003, 2007, 2011) to measure in what extend Valcarcel´s leadership public perceptions were associated with his strategic link to specific issues and attributes. Results showed correlations between his public image and perceptions about public prioritized issues each time and attributes connected with citizen expectations demonstrating the effectiveness of the contextual factors for constructing the political leadership along time.

Keywords: Political leadership, contextual intelligence, priming, public opinion, local elections, political communication.

Ability to spot and resist manipulated media news about international affairs: Does political knowledge provide it?

Vasyl V. Kucherenko (European University Institute in Florence, Italy), Cindy T. Christen (Colorado State University, USA)

ABSTRACT: This experiment explored relationships between individuals? levels of political knowledge and ability to spot manipulated media information about international affairs as well as susceptibility to influence by such information. The context of the study was the ?Orange Revolution? in Ukraine. A convenience sample of 146 students at a large American university was randomly assigned to read one of three simulated New York Times news reports, experimentally manipulated to favor either the Ukrainian government, the opposition, or a balance of political views. Analysis revealed few significant relationships between level of political knowledge and spotting manipulation in news reports. Instead, trust in the New York Times explained a majority of the variance. Also, political knowledge wasn?t associated with susceptibility to manipulation. Interestingly, a majority of participants who spotted manipulation nevertheless accepted standpoints the manipulated articles promoted.

KEYWORDS: manipulated media information, framing, political knowledge, media trust, the Orange Revolution

How news domestication of news may blur the conflict: Coverage of 2008 South Ossetia war in Ukraine

Daria Taradai (National University of Kyiv -Mohyla Academy, Ukraine)

ABSTRACT: While media coverage of the 2008 South Ossetia War in Ukraine has been explored a little, the domestication of it has not yet become an object of research. The concept of news domestication is relatively new and underdeveloped in Ukrainian media studies. Previous research of media coverage of the 2008 South Ossetia War was either limited to the period of the war or was devoted only to its press coverage. Current research intends to fill the gap in the study of media discourse in Ukraine and to present an insight in the 2008 South Ossetia War TV coverage and its domestication.

KEYWORDS: international conflicts, domestication of news, television

Crowdsourcing the mainstream. An analysis of the most frequently posted links on Facebook

Wojciech Walczak (Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland)

ABSTRACT: The article aims at investigating whether link-posting of Facebook users results inreproducing the hegemony of corporate-led mainstream cultural productions. A detailed analysis of 103 links shared 16,735 times by 6,344 Facebook users is presented. The following research finds that although a vast majority of the most often posted links points to corporate content, especially music videos, the proliferative power of Facebook enables some user-generated content to become enormously popular. This user-generated content represents mainly the ideas contrary to the ones dominating mainstream media. Links of this kind are more likely to be shared by older users. The reproduction of the corporate mainstream on Facebook is primarily due to female users, younger ones, users who inhabit larger cities, who have fewer friends, and are less culturally competent. Further analysis suggests that posting links to mainstream content may serve as a strategy of social compensation.

KEYWORDS: social networking sites, cultural hegemony, social compensation hypothesis, mainstream, media, Facebook

Other-projected environmental image: A conceptual framework

Li Ji (Macquarie University, Australia)

ABSTRACT: This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework for the evaluation of other-projected environmental image in an international context. It is based on a case study of an Australian projection of China?s environmental image. By conducting inductive framing analysis and inductive content analysis, the research analyses 315 articles from two of the most important broadsheets in focuses on three special events. The findings reveal four generic frames ? environmental problems, Australia ? The Australian and The Sydney Morning Herald, environmental governance, global role, and international cooperation and other issue-specific frames. The research is a first try at conceptualizing a framework for other-projected environmental image.

KEYWORDS: conceptual framework, deductive content analysis, environmental image, generic frames, inductive framing analysis

Interview – Walery Pisarek: Central Europe between past and the future

 

Referees: Aukse Balcytiene, Inta Brikse, Janina Fras, Peter Gross, Iwona Hofman, Epp Lauk, Jerzy Olędzki, Natalia Milewski, Gunnar Nygren, Wanda Patrzałek, Zrinjka Perusko, Svetlana Pasti, Jaromir Volek

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