Volume 7, No 2 (13), Fall 2014

Editor: Michał Głowacki, Guest Editors: Norbert Merkovity and Dominic Wring


Guest Editors’ Introduction (Norbert Merkovity and Dominic Wring)

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On the philosophical status of the transmission metaphor

Emanuel Kulczycki (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland)

ABSTRACT: The view on the communication process as a process in with something is communicated (transmitted), is a collective view and as such must be regarded as a subject to historical changes. This article aims to analyse the metaphorical conceptualizations, which form part of the collective view, and which are important research subjects of communicology. A new division introduced in the article is the distinction between the pre-theoretical and the theoretical metaphorical conceptualization in relation to communication processes. This procedure allows for an analysis of the relationship between pre-theoretical views (conduit, container metaphor) and theoretical ones (transfer metaphor). The author suggests how the introduction of the diachronic perspective to the study of defining of communication helps to better understand the genesis of the modern understanding of communication practices.

KEY WORDS: transmission metaphor, philosophy of communication, communicology, metaphorical conceptualization, collective view

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Audiovisual political advertising in communication strategies of Polish political parties: The case of the parliamentary campaign in 2011

Małgorzata Adamik-Szysiak (Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, Poland)

ABSTRACT: The article presents the results of empirical research on the use of audiovisual advertising by Polish political parties in election campaigns (both on television and distributed on the Internet). The goal is to show the current trends and most often used means of persuasion during the condensed construction, political information-persuasion message, which is the election advertisement. The commercials were analysed of political parties distributed in the period of the parliamentary election campaign in 2011. The results of the analysis were compared with the results of previous research in this matter, which exhibited certain tendencies in the communication strategies of the Polish political parties.

KEYWORDS: audiovisual election advertising, election campaign, personalization, content analysis, political parties, communication strategy

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Journalists and politicians in television interviews after elections: A redefinition of roles?

Dorota Piontek and Bartosz Hordecki (University of Adam Mickiewicz in Poznań, Poland)

ABSTRACT: According to the canons of liberal democracy, both political and media systems constitute two spheres which strongly interact but still are separated and fulfill different aims. The actors belonging to these spheres play specific social roles, due to sets of rules called (respectively) the logic of politics and media logic. Politicians are supposed to create and reshape the world gaining electorate support while the media should show, explain and interpret the world in a way that attracts its audience. The two are expected to compete inside their spheres but not with each other. Today, however, the mediatization of politics and politicization of the media have changed the relationship between politicians and journalists. The aim of the article is to describe the phenomenon of redefinition of roles of the main actors of political communication, using content analysis of television political interviews during an election campaign. Elections create a special situation of mutual interdependence of the two entities as well as the need to achieve their specific goals. The authors weigh up whether the changing formula of TV interviews is an element of a broader phenomenon of competition and trial of taking up control in the process of political communication or just incidental behavior typical for the time of an election.

KEYWORDS: political interview, journalism, coverage of politics, journalist-politician relations

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Disaffected citizens in Croatia: Analysis of socio-demographic and media use influences on political participation

Dina Vozab (University of Zagreb, Croatia)

ABSTRACT: Political scientists have noted rising popular indifference to politics which is indicated with declining voter turnout in advanced democracies. Similar trends emerged in the radically changing ?high choice? media environments. Studies in political communication (Blekesaune et al.,2012; Prior, 2007; Strömbäck et al., 2012) have shown that audiences are ?tuning out? of the news and current affairs programs and that the gap between the politically active and not active is widening. The aim of this paper is to analyze those who abstain from political participation in Croatia in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and media use. National media systems are important factors in explaining differences in news consumption and political knowledge. This analysis will serve as a case study of how a changing media environment interacts with political participation in a post-socialist political culture. In the analysis binary logistic regression will be used on the data from the online survey on media audiences.

 KEYWORDS: participation; media use; entertainment; post-socialism; survey

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Great expectations: On experiences with media reform in post-socialist Europe (and some unexpected outcomes)

Zrinjka Perusko (University of Zagreb)

ABSTRACT: The chapter examines the problems resulting from employing the perspective of media reform in relation to the development of post-socialist media systems in Central and Eastern Europe. The perspective of media reform is normatively rooted both in normative (value) expectations and in narrow focus on regulatory success, ahistorical and descriptive. The chapter substitutes this approach with the media systems approach, which allows for a broader analysis of media system dimensions in their historical context, as well as in terms of their relationship to each other. Several examples of failed reforms, a consequence of the misunderstanding of the media system and the misfit with the type of regulatory model employed, are examined. The chapter finally questions whether the relationships between main media system dimensions are still valid in conditions of networked media and increased media commercialization. As one example of this it questions the present ?health? of the normatively expected relationship between journalistic professionalism and the market-oriented media in terms of the contemporary developments in ?predatory? media and citizen journalism.

 KEYWORDS: media and democracy, media reform, media system, comparative media research, Central and Eastern Europe

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Media for the Russian language minorities: The role of the Estonian Public Broadcasting (ERR) in 1990-2012

Andres Joesaar (Tallin University Baltic Film and Media School, Estonia), Salme Rannu (University of Tartu), Maria Jufereva (University of Jyväskylä)

ABSTRACT: This article aims at exploring the ways in which Estonian Public Broadcasting (ERR) tackles one specific media service sphere; how television programmes for Russian language minorities are created in a small country. For that task development of the whole Estonian media landscape must be overviewed. By referring to McQuail?s (2010) theoretical framework of media institutions? influencers, this article investigates how media policy, economic conditions and technology have influenced these processes. The article gives an insight into the development of Russian language media in such a small media market as Estonia.

KEYWORDS: public service broadcasting; Russian language media; media for minorities; Estonia

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Russian journalists and social media: updated transitions and new challenges

Elena Johansson and Gunnar Nygren (Södertörn University, Sweden)

ABSTRACT: Russian journalism has certain peculiarities based on deeply rooted traditions and state of the modern media system. It has developed a double professional culture; on the one hand it has been serving state interests and on the other hand journalism has been a mission of enlightenment and education in the tradition of the ?intelligentsia?. New technologies drastically affect media work. Since the mid-2000s the introduction of social media challenged journalists? role in society as well as professional practices and norms. This paper discusses an existence of pattern of using social media by Russian journalists based on historical roots and socio-cultural and political background.

KEYWORDS: Web 2.0 journalists, Russia, Facebook, Twitter, blogs, LiveJournal blog platform, the role of journalists, social media

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Culture and media systems: Interview with Peter Gross

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Book reviews

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Contributors’ biographies

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Referees: Ainars Dimants, Janina Fras, Tomasz Goba-Klas, Iwona Hofman, Alicja Jasiernia, Michał Kuś, Bartłomiej Lódzki, Agnieszka Stępińska, Jaromir Volek, Rocio Zamora Medina



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